Posts tagged ‘history’
Garlic lovers face a continual paradox. While flavorful garlic lends that special dish just what it needs, it can leave one’s breath smelling quite dreadful. Garlic has not always been disregarded because of its lingering odor, though. The ancient Romans and Egyptians held garlic in high regard as either a food or sacred plant. Thought to give them strength, Romans would eat raw garlic. As the Egyptians took an oath, they “ranked garlic next to the gods” (Taylor’s Guide to Heirloom Vegetables, Watson, 193).
In the past, many cultures did not use garlic for eating pleasure, but rather to heal ailments. Assyrians used garlic as an antibiotic. Thinking it would help relieve asthma, the Greeks consumed cooked garlic. During the Middle Ages, people believed garlic would help an individual avoid heatstroke. Amelia Simmons’s wrote of garlic in the 1796 American Cookery that “Tho’ used by the French, [they] are better adapted to the uses of medicine than cookery.”(Heirloom Vegetable Gardening, Weaver, 228) Today, garlic is thought to possibly help reduce cholesterol (Mayo Clinic).
Regardless of how garlic has been used in centuries past, it is evident that many cultures have found it helpful to cultivate for a multitude of reasons. Growing garlic is straightforward but requires patience during the winter and early spring months.
Garlic is grown by planting cloves of garlic in the late fall months. Avoid rotting by selecting a soil that drains well. In loose soil, place the clove about two inches deep, pointy tip upright. Since garlic is asexually propagated, one can create a crop tailored to local conditions by carefully selecting the cloves that are planted. Simply save the biggest and best heads from the harvest to plant during the following fall season.
Hardneck cultivars such as Georgian ‘Chesnok Red’, Russian ‘Rosewood’, and ‘Ontario Purple Trillium’ will send up an elegantly curvedscape, or flower stalk, which can and really should be harvested for maximum bulb growth. If the scape is not harvested, the plant’s energy is directed towards the flower rather than towards producing a larger bulb. The scape itself can be sautéed or used to make pesto.
Once the leaves turn brown, it is time to harvest the garlic bulb. To harvest, loosen the soil around the bulb, being careful not to pierce or bruise it. After harvesting, allow the bulbs to dry for approximately two weeks. Once the garlic has dried, it can be used in various dishes or roasted alone.
Try to grow your own garlic and enjoy the bounty! As restaurant owner Alice May Brock once said, “Tomatoes and oregano make it Italian; wine and tarragon make it French. Sour cream makes it Russian; lemon and cinnamon make it Greek. Soy sauce makes it Chinese; garlic makes it good” (thinkexist.com)
Back in the warmer days of August, I had the opportunity to attend the Detroit Agriculture Network’s 15th Annual urban garden tour in Detroit, Michigan. Hundreds of people gathered in the late afternoon at Eastern Market to board buses or take off on bikes to visit gardens and hear from gardeners on the east, west, and central areas of the city. Above all, it was an occasion to hear from passionate individuals and view the city from the ground up.
Even though my first experience seeing and volunteering with urban gardens in Detroit was in 2004, looking at the gardens in Detroit’s landscape – a compelling assortment of open space, roads, and buildings (many still inhabited and, yes, many long abandoned) – continues to be at once jarring and inspiring; a poignant and thought-provoking place because of the layers of time and meanings collected here. As garden historian Kenneth Helphand writes,
“When we see an improbable garden, we experience a shock of recognition of the garden’s form and elements, but also a renewed appreciation of the garden’s transformative power to beautify, comfort, and convey meaning despite the incongruity of its surroundings. Gardens are defined by their context, and perhaps the further the context from our expectations, the deeper the meaning the garden holds for us.”
As a historian, the context I look to when I see these gardens is often that of the past. How did social, political, economic, environmental and cultural conditions shape transform these spaces? The seeming improbability of gardens as a part of post-industrial landscape challenged my expectations, and sparked my interest in learning what deeper meanings, and histories, gardening in Detroit might have.
Through this experience with a place, the landscape itself becomes an inspiration and an archive. A record of changing tastes, values, style, and use, for example, is captured by looking closely at the location, age, and size of buildings. Natural features, such as rivers and waterways often mark the original contribution to the archive of a landscape.
Yet in a place like Detroit, where seemingly endless redevelopment and decline are starkly juxtaposed, you cannot help but wonder what is missing from the landscape today. This can be particularly problematic when digging deeper into the history of such fleeting spaces as small scale community-minded gardens in a constantly changing urban environment.
Gone from Detroit’s landscape is the rich tradition of gardening culture that came before the contemporary movement. For example, during the 1890s, Mayor Hazen S. Pingree started a municipally-supported gardening plan to feed unemployed workers (many of whom were Polish and German immigrants). The Garden Club of Michigan was one of the 12 founding members of the Garden Club of America in 1913. During the Great Migration, African Americans moving to Detroit used gardens as a means of providing food and improving the appearance and value of their neighborhoods. And in the 1930s, thrift gardens again provided sustenance to many of those left unemployed by the Great Depression.
As the Haupt Fellow at Smithsonian Gardens, I’m in the process of digging up the details of these gardens using more traditional archives to better understand the history of what it means for people to contribute to an urban-industrial landscape by gardening. This can be a difficult task since the spaces themselves are often fleeting and records of them scarce, unlike many of the design plans and photographs of more famous landscapes. Looking back to the 19th and early 20th centuries, sociological surveys, government reports, meeting minutes, scrapbooks, maps, newspapers, magazines, and photographs are often surprisingly detailed documents that provide us with a way to re-imagine what these types of gardens looked like, their contexts, and how they were used in the past.
Together, the actual landscape and the two-dimensional records of experiences long removed from the land lend themselves to a fuller garden history that contributes not only to understanding gardens themselves, but also how gardens can reflect changing social, political, economic, environmental, and cultural contexts that give more people a way to consider the role of gardens and landscapes in their own lives.
The fleeting, seasonal nature of gardens also points to the importance of documenting garden spaces today. While we all hope they will last forever, proactively considering how you can preserve a garden or landscape’s history for your family, community, or organization provides an opportunity for reflection and sharing of information between one another that can often help to create connections and networks of support that will help these spaces exist into the future. One way of doing this is through creating a collection of photographs, such as those found in Smithsonian Gardens’ Archives of American Gardens. Look for more on this in my next post.
- Joe Cialdella, Haupt Fellow, Smithsonian Gardens
For more information on being a part of preserving garden history or beginning your own research, check out the resources below.
Take 10 minutes to “tag” an image form the Archives of American Gardens to help make their extensive collections more accessible to the public, researchers, and landscape designers!
These websites offer good tips and instructions for beginning your own archival adventure into the history of a garden or landscape near you:
 Kenneth Helphand. Defiant Gardens: Making Gardens in Wartime, 2006, pg. 9.
Are you a garden enthusiast who enjoys history on the side, or perhaps a history buff with an interest in the outdoors? Well now you’re in luck! Come on down to the Enid A. Haupt Garden behind the Castle on the National Mall and join our garden interpreters for Smithsonian Gardens’ newest educational program, History in Bloom.
Through fun and interactive activities you can learn about the Smithsonian’s history of collecting exotic plant species from around the world and experience Victorian-era culture preserved right here in the Haupt Garden. Whether you are using historic photographs to explore the garden’s changing landscape or embarking on a global scavenger hunt, you will enjoy discovering the many hidden treasures this garden has to offer!
Look for our garden interpreters in the Haupt Garden on Mondays, Wednesdays, Fridays and Saturdays from 10:30 to 1:30 to explore the history of Smithsonian Gardens. Our interpreters will facilitate activities that teach visitors about the history in the Haupt Garden and give them the tools to investigate the garden like explorers throughout history.
To learn more about this program visit Smithsonian Gardens’ website. Now go ahead and take an outdoor journey through time!
Corey Colwill, Education Volunteer