Posts tagged ‘orchids’

An Exploration of the Fringe: What’s Blooming in the Smithsonian Gardens Orchid Collection

Winter is one of the most prolific bloom times in the Smithsonian Gardens orchid greenhouses and each year I am astounded by the diversity that is on display. I have a predilection for miniature orchids, for bizarre traits and unique stories and the two orchids featured today will not disappoint.

Bulbophyllum saltatorum var. albociliatum is an exquisite species found widely across Central Africa. Its winter-blooming flowers are no bigger than a thumbnail, and like many Bulbophyllums, the lip has been dramatically modified. In this case, the modification takes the form of a bright pink fringe, which acts as a lure for small flies who end up inadvertently pollinating the flower.  This species is also rather unique for a Bulbophyllum because its scent is quite pleasant (at least to my olfaction).

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Fringe is not purely used for deceptive purposes. This characteristic, along with colorless flowers and night fragrance is a pollinator syndrome for Hawk Moths. Various species of Brassavola and Habenaria exhibit a unique variation of this morphological adaptation, and offer nectar rewards to their nocturnal visitors. It is not certain what characteristic of this fringed lip appeals to the Hawk Moth, but the convergence of this trait across unrelated orchid genera implies that it is pollinator specific.

In their infinite diversity, orchids always manage to deconstruct the carefully deduced generalizations scientists make about their biology. The Clowesia below, Clowesia Grace Dunn is a hybrid between Clowesia rosea and Clowesia warzewiczii and as you can see, has an arresting display of fringe on its lip as well.

IMG_7585

These flowers are NOT moth pollinated, rather they are visited by crepuscularly active Euglossine bees that collect their fragrances in the form of oils to woo lady bees. Typically, Euglossine bees are generalists, and will collect fragrances from a number of different species. It has been theorized that the fragrances of Clowesia species change throughout the day, with an “optimal fragrance” either before dawn or just after dusk when their pollinators are most active. This may seem like a wild concept, but many biological functions occur in a cyclical fashion, and solely night fragrant orchids are commonly referenced. It makes sense that the same mechanism would be at work in crepuscularly, diurnally and nocturnally fragrant plants.

Daily fragrance fluctuations are not unique to Clowesia, and have been studied previously in Arachnis, Vanda, Spathoglottis and Oncidium (Goh, 1983), among others. The variation in fragrance could be influenced by changes in acidity due to CO2 production during Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (Goh, 1983) and is decidedly affected by photoperiod, an indication that fragrance is regulated by a circadian rhythm (Altenburger & Matile, 1990).

I never considered the importance of physiological constraints playing such a vital role in the evolution of plant-pollinator relationships, but evidence for this “biological clock” of fragrance emission throughout the plant world is incredibly fascinating. Orchid pollination is a beautifully complex fabric of not only interactions (deceptive or otherwise), but the timing of these interactions. As I am often reminded, NOTHING is coincidence, but the intricacies of evolution often seem astoundingly fortuitous.

 

Julie Rotramel, Living Collections Specialist

References:

Altenburger, R., & Matile, P.. (1990). Further observations on rhythmic emission of fragrance in flowers. Planta,180(2), 194–197. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/23380097

Goh, C. J.. (1983). Rhythms of Acidity and CO2 Production in Orchid Flowers. The New Phytologist, 93(1), 25–32. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/2431891

February 5, 2016 at 12:18 pm Leave a comment

On Display: Highlights from the Smithsonian Gardens Orchid Collection

One of the best things about working for a botanical garden like Smithsonian Gardens is that part of our mission is to produce splendiferous specimen plants. What makes it even better is that we often get to exhibit these specimens at the peak of their glory!

Alex and Melanie of our interiorscaping staff make sure that many of these extraordinary orchids are on display for the public to see in Smithsonian Gardens’ three display cases at the Smithsonian’s National Museum of American History (NMAH). This week is no exception. A superbly bloomed Cattleya alliance hybrid, Brassocatanthe Julie Morrison (Brassanthe Maikai X Brassocattleya Morning Glory), is almost bursting out of one of the cases!

NMAH-brassocatanthe

Brassocatanthe Julie Morrison (Brassanthe Maikai X Brassocattleya Morning Glory), Smithsonian Gardens Orchid Collection

This hybrid is a combination of three species from three different genera; the hearty, purple Guarianthe bowringiana which contributes a large flower count and lovely amethyst color; the Cattleya purpurata from Brazil which contributes a large flower size and tremendous vigor to the hybrid; and the fragrant, white Brassavola nodosa.

Top (L to R): Guarianthe bowringiana and Cattleya purpurata, Smithsonian Gardens Orchid Collection Bottom: Brassavola nodosa, Smithsonian Gardens Orchid Collection

Top (L to R): Guarianthe bowringiana and Cattleya purpurata, Smithsonian Gardens Orchid Collection Bottom: Brassavola nodosa, Smithsonian Gardens Orchid Collection

Brassavola nodosa may be the least colorful of the hybrid’s three parents, but it displays a tremendous variability. Small, barely-discernable spots deep in this orchid’s lip turn into brilliant, spotted patterns when it is used to create a hybrid with a more colorful species, as in the case of this Brassocatanthe. The flower form of the Brassavola also dominates in this type of breeding. No matter what it is crossed with, the resulting hybrids almost always have narrow segments, spots, and a flaring lip.

Brassavola hybrids are always vigorous and charming with wonderful color and are therefore highly recommended for use in tropical gardens and in home orchid growing. Smithsonian Gardens has several clones of Brassavola hybrids and their species parents in its orchid collection; many of them are displayed at NMAH as they bloom. You can also see these and other beauties from the Smithsonian Gardens Orchid Collection starting February 27, 2016 at this year’s Orchids in Focus exhibition hosted in partnership with the United States Botanic Garden. Stop by and see these glorious orchids if you’re in Washington, D.C.!

– Tom Mirenda, Smithsonian Gardens Orchid Collection Specialist

January 15, 2016 at 9:09 am Leave a comment

Beguiling Bulbophyllums: What’s Blooming in the Smithsonian Gardens Orchid Collection

Bulbophyllum is one of the largest orchid genera with around 2,000 species. This genera’s name refers to the leaf-bearing pseudobulbs that are characteristic of plants in this group. An encounter with a Bulbophyllum for the first time can be a rather unexpected olfactory experience, potentially unpleasant, but ultimately a fascinating example of brood site deception between plants and their pollinators.

Bulbophyllum echinolabium

One of the best examples of the odoriferous Bulbophyllum is Bulbophyllum echinolabium is a beautiful, large-flowered specimen with a putrid and pervasive stink. While the smell makes me want to get away fast rather than stick around to take more photographs, the plant’s fly pollinators are wooed closer by the ripe suggestion of rotting meat.  Obviously they are deceived (beguiled, you could say) into pollinating the flower for no reward, and they leave without laying their eggs.

Not all Bulbophyllums exude such a foul odor. Many have a more floral or fruity scent to attract fruit fly pollinators. Others, like Bulbophyllum purpureorhachis ‘Joe Palermo’ have no detectable smell but are equally compelling with impressive rachises of flowers that curve towards the sky like cobras rising from the ground.

Bulbophyllum purpureorhachis 'Joe Palermo'

Bulbophyllum purpureorhachis ‘Joe Palermo’

Another beautiful specimen in bloom is the otherworldly Bulbophyllum medusa, named after Medusa the Gorgon. The flowers’ sepals have evolved dramatically over time to mimic fungal mycelia which attract fungus gnat pollinators.

Bulbophyllum medusae

Bulbophyllum medusae

It is exceedingly difficult to choose just three Bulbophyllums to feature since there is such a diversity of form and color in this genus. We recently accessioned a large number of Bulbophyllum species into our collection and below are two others I couldn’t leave off this post. Bulbophyllum guttulatum, from section Cirrhopetalum, displays an arc of speckled flowers with bright purple lips. The much larger, green and brown mottled specimen is one of our current mysteries. It could be one of three similar species, B. arfakianum, B. frittilariflorum or B. burfordiense. Each species exhibits wide variation in phenotype, therefore an exact species determination must be made by comparing specific parts of the flower anatomy.

Bulbophyllum guttulatum

Bulbophyllum guttulatum

Bulbophyllum sp.

Bulbophyllum sp.

There is always something blooming in the Smithsonian Gardens Orchid Collection. Stay connected with us to see more plants from the collection!

-Julie Rotramel, Living Collections Specialist

November 20, 2015 at 10:00 am Leave a comment

Rare and Beautiful Orchids (and a Horticulturist) Find Home at Smithsonian Gardens

Imagine opening an innocuous cardboard box and finding this inside!

Paphiopedilum Chiu Hua Dancer

Paphiopedilum Chiu Hua Dancer

I was fortunate to have this pleasure on one of my first days on the job as a horticulturist with Smithsonian Gardens. Already amazed (and slightly overwhelmed) by the diversity of orchids in the Smithsonian Gardens Orchid Collection, my first week on the job included helping my colleagues unpack a tractor trailer full of boxes containing a major donation of orchids.

Anne, a Smithsonian Gardens volunteer, assists Emily and the other greenhouse staff unpack boxes of donated orchids.

Anne, a Smithsonian Gardens volunteer, assists Emily and the other greenhouse staff unpack boxes of donated orchids.

Hundreds of specimens were added to the orchid collection at the Smithsonian Gardens Greenhouse Facility in Suitland, MD. The plants were part of an extensive collection owned by the late Denis Roessiger of Penobscot, ME, that have been generously donated by his wife, Lucybelle.

Horticulturists from the Smithsonian Gardens greenhouses journeyed to Maine to select and carefully pack up the orchids, which then travelled overnight by truck to the Suitland greenhouse facility. There, greenhouse staff and volunteers eagerly unloaded and unpacked the vast array of plants. “This donation is exceptional in that 99% of the orchids are species orchids or rare hybrids,” commented Smithsonian Gardens Orchid Specialist, Tom Mirenda.  The donation is a major addition to the Smithsonian Gardens’ collection, adding entirely new genera to it and increasing the species abundance and overall diversity.

I asked Tom Mirenda to give me a walk-through of the highlights of the donation. Here are his top picks:

(L to R) Bulbophyllum claptennse and Bulbophyllum cocoinum

(L to R) Bulbophyllum claptennse and Bulbophyllum cocoinum

Over 200 new Bulbophyllum specimens now complement the already extensive collection of this genus maintained by Smithsonian Gardens. Bulbophyllum is one of the largest and most ancient genus of orchids; found in tropical forests around the world, they are often odd-looking plants with peculiar, sometimes foul, fragrances.  “One of my favorites currently in bloom is Bulbophyllum cocoinum, which has a coconut fragrance,” says Mirenda.  The donation also included fifteen species of Trichoceros, a new genus for the collection. Trichoceros are epiphytic and terrestrial orchids native to the Andean Mountain range in South America.

(L to R) Lycaste deppei Superb and Phrgmipedium Fritz Schomberg

(L to R) Lycaste deppei Superb and Phrgmipedium Fritz Schomberg

The donation tripled Smithsonian Gardens’ collection of hard to find Maxillaria orchids, and added 50 to 70 species of Restrepia and several large specimen Coelogyne and Dendrochilum. Also new to the collection are several Lycaste and Dracula species.  Rare color forms of Laelia and Cattleya now grace the collection. Orchid enthusiasts will swoon at the large addition of South American Slipper Orchids (Phragmipedium), particularly the controversial Phragmipedium kovachii—the orchid at the heart of the book, Scent of a Scandal.

(L to R) Vanda Hiyasmin 'Korat' and Vanda Pachara Delight

(L to R) Vanda Hiyasmin ‘Korat’ and Vanda Pachara Delight “Isabella’

Large, brilliant, purple flowers of an eight-foot Vanda were one of the showiest surprises during unpacking. One of the Smithsonian greenhouses has been transformed with the addition of roughly 40 Vandas now hanging from the ceiling and suspended racks.

Vandas hanging in one of Smithsonian Gardens' orchid greenhouses.

Vandas hanging in one of Smithsonian Gardens’ orchid greenhouses.

With the acquisition of these plants, our orchid collection now has well over 10,000 specimens. “By continually building our collection in this way, we have made the Smithsonian Gardens Orchid Collection a true scientific resource,” says Mirenda.

– Emily Cook, Horticulturist, Smithsonian Gardens

September 4, 2015 at 10:00 am 2 comments

A Spectacular Show: What’s Blooming in the Smithsonian Gardens Orchid Collection

The sight of fresh blooming encyclias is one to tease the eyes. Generally small flowered and often less than an inch in diameter, encyclias pack a punch with their unending shape and color variations. Orchid lovers could spend days observing these species and hybrids. This hardly comes as a surprise when you take into consideration that there are over 150 species in the genus.

Encyclia Nursery Rhyme

Encyclia Nursery Rhyme

Originating from the Greek word, enkylein, the name encyclia refers to the way the lateral lobes of the flower encircle the column. Found from central Florida to Brazil, these orchids grow in warmer climates and produce psuedobulbs in clumps. Each clump sends up several flower spikes at a time and each variety of encyclia has flower spikes that range in a length from a foot to several feet long. Since each spike can produce many flowers these spikes make for quite a spectacular show.

A clustering of Encyclia oncidioides behind Encyclia Cindy.

A clustering of Encyclia oncidioides behind Encyclia Cindy.

I find these orchids very pleasing to observe. Their small flowers make them manageable to view, but contain subtle details that are a delight to discover. These flowers have great depth to them, so changing your angle of view can reveal more interesting characteristics.

Encyclias are often crossed with the genera Cattleya and Epidendrum to create lovely hybrids. Encyclias are desirable for their interesting flower shapes and Encyclia cordigera in particular often is selected for hybridization for its darker colors and intoxicating aroma. Encyclia cordigera has received over 40 awards from the American Orchid Society, so why not pass along some of these winning characteristics to other orchids?

Encyclia Atroniceum x bractescens

Encyclia Atroniceum x bractescens

Encyclia alata x mooreana

Encyclia alata x mooreana

In the Smithsonian Gardens Orchid Collection, there are currently over 60 examples of these encyclia species and hybrid combinations. Their flowers last up to a month sometimes longer, so they regularly make their way to the display cases in museums around the Smithsonian. Be sure to swing by the orchid cases downstairs in the National Museum of American History sometime in the next few weeks to see one of these incredible orchids on display.

– Alan Marcus, Smithsonian Gardens Orchid Intern

Encyclia Cindy

Encyclia Cindy

July 23, 2015 at 11:18 am 1 comment

Chutes, Ladders, and Buckets: What’s Blooming in the Smithsonian Garden’s Orchid Collection

There are few orchids as unusually delightful and whimsical as the genera Gongora, Stanhopea, and Coryanthes in family Orchidaceae. Largely distributed through the neotropics, these genera are closely related under the subtribe Stanhopeinae. Though they share a similar way of enticing pollinators to visit their flowers, each of these orchids offer something unique as well.

L to R: Gongora aff. quinquenervis, Stanhopea jenischiana, and Coryanthes trifoliate  from the Smithsonian Gardens Orchid Collection

L to R: Gongora aff. quinquenervis, Coryanthes trifoliate, and Stanhopea jenischiana from the Smithsonian Gardens Orchid Collection

Gongora, Stanhopea, and Coryanthes all attract euglossine bees to pollinate their blooms by producing highly aromatic oils on their flowers. Male euglossine bees, drawn by the intense fragrance, land on the flowers, scrape up the scented oil, and then collect it in spongy pouch-like structures on their back legs. It is believed that the male bees use this behavior is to help attract mates. The more complex the aroma compounds a male bee creates by visiting multiple flowers, the more attractive he appears to female bees.

Transferring collected oils onto its back legs requires a male euglossine bee to release its grip on a flower momentarily. Rather amazingly, these three genera of orchids have each developed a way to capitalize on this moment of vulnerability. Gongoras and Stanhopeas  orchids use a “slide” structure formed from the petals and dorsal sepal of each bloom to guide the upside-down tumbling bee past the pollen on the end of the column and out of the flower. It’s nature’s version of “Chutes and Ladders!”

Coryanthes or Bucket Orchids, on the other hand, trap their bee visitors in liquid pooled in the bucket-shaped lip of their flowers. With its wings submerged, a male bee must exit out back of the bucket and past the column containing the pollen to escape the flower. In the process pollen from the flower attaches to the bee’s back. Since this is a traumatic experience, the bee temporarily avoids similar flowers. Eventually, the bee forgets the experience and falls into the same trap on another flower. The pollen already attached to its back then is deposited in the appropriate place on the flower’s column before new pollen adheres to the bee. Unbelievable, right?

Although flower spikes in all three species extend and hang pendulant from the base of the psuedobulbs, the more interesting phenomenon is that all three develop inverted flowers. This adaptation guides the fall of the visiting bee downwards through each orchid’s respective structure to help pollinate the plant.

Though similar in many ways, each genus exhibits a radically different shape. Below is a photo of Gongora aff. quinquenervis from the Smithsonian Garden Orchid Collection. The flower shape is fairly representative of the Gongora genus as a whole and makes for a great model to understand the pollination process. Some say Gongora tend to look like a bird or insect in flight because of its wing-like reflexed lateral sepals. What strikes me in this particular species, however, is its jaggedness and the small barbs coming off the lip. The barbs remind me of a fishing hook with a lure. Considering how the flower uses its structure to attract a pollinator, it’s actually not a bad analogy

Gongora aff. quinquenervis from the Smithsonian Gardens Orchid Collection

Gongora aff. quinquenervis from the Smithsonian Gardens Orchid Collection

Stanhopea jenischiana, most recognizable for the dark eye spots on its yellow lip (see below), pollinate very similarly to Gongoras via a “slide” method. The fall bees experience after entering the flower led these orchids to be nicknamed “Fall-Through” Orchids.

Stanhopea jenischiana from the Smithsonian Gardens Orchid Collection

Stanhopea jenischiana from the Smithsonian Gardens Orchid Collection

And finally, below is Coryanthes trifoliata. Though the lateral sepals unfortunately are past their peak in this photo, the bucket lip is still intact and shows off some this bloom’s stunning detail! Notice the liquid dripping into the flower’s bucket. The second image shows more clearly the channel through which the orchid forces visiting bee to escape.

Coryanthes trifoliata from the Smithsonian Gardens Orchid Collection

Coryanthes trifoliata from the Smithsonian Gardens Orchid Collection

While these fantastic orchids abound in the Smithsonian Gardens greenhouses, a few have made their way into the Orchids: Interlocking Science and Beauty at the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History over the past several months. Have you had a chance to see any of them? With the show closing this Sunday, April 26 there’s still time to see a few new additions including a Gongora! Don’t miss them!

Alan M., Smithsonian Gardens Orchid Exhibition Intern

April 23, 2015 at 4:17 pm Leave a comment

Long Lasting Enjoyment and Ephemeral Beauty: What’s Blooming in the Smithsonian Gardens Orchid Collection

At the annual orchid exhibit, we often display highly resilient orchids with long blooming periods to maximize their time on view. Masdevallia Cheryl Shohan ‘Red Hot Momma’ has uniquely shaped, brilliant red flowers that can last up to three weeks. This genus is a less common find in our exhibits, so I am thrilled to see it going downtown this coming week. If time or distance keeps you from visiting, enjoy this cheery photo. It will last a lot longer than the flower anyway!

Masdevallia Cheryl Shohan 'Red Hot Momma'

Masdevallia Cheryl Shohan ‘Red Hot Momma’

Sobralia wilsoniana has much more ephemeral, but brilliant purple flowers, which are at their peak for a little over a day. This isn’t a good candidate to bring to the orchid exhibit, but it is stunning to see in the greenhouse. For the most part in the wild sobralias are bee pollinated. The bright yellow splash on the labellum is a guide that draws pollinators into the center of the flower.

Sobralia wilsoniana

Sobralia wilsoniana

This last featured orchid this week is a hybrid bulbophyllum—Bulbophyllum Thai Spider. This is a cross between Bulbophyllum medusae and Bulbophyllum gracillimum, and characteristics of each are very obvious when looking at the flowers of this hybrid.

Bulbophyllum Thai Spider

Bulbophyllum Thai Spider

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Bulbophyllum Thai Spider

 

Bulbophyllum medusae contributes its long, white tendril-like sepals, which become slightly shorter and more orderly in the hybrid under the influence of bright red Bulbophyllum gracillimum. These flowers, like those of Sobralia wilsoniana, only last for about a day before they start to wither.

There is always something blooming in the Smithsonian Gardens Orchid Collection. Stay connected with us to see more plants from the collection, and visit the exhibit downtown through the end of April to experience our orchids firsthand!

 

 

-Julie R., Living Collections Specialist

March 5, 2015 at 11:00 am 1 comment

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